Competent Men and Warm Women: Gender Stereotypes and Backlash in Image Search Results


論文アブストラクト:There is much concern about algorithms that underlie information services and the view of the world they present. We develop a novel method for examining the content and strength of gender stereotypes in image search, inspired by the trait adjective checklist method. We compare the gender distribution in photos retrieved by Bing for the query "person" and for queries based on 68 character traits (e.g., "intelligent person") in four regional markets. Photos of men are more often retrieved for "person," as compared to women. As predicted, photos of women are more often retrieved for warm traits (e.g., "emotional") whereas agentic traits (e.g., "rational") are represented by photos of men. A backlash effect, where stereotype-incongruent individuals are penalized, is observed. However, backlash is more prevalent for "competent women" than "warm men." Results underline the need to understand how and why biases enter search algorithms and at which stages of the engineering process.