論文アブストラクト： Previous research has shown that sketch-based input is efficient and preferable in the context of algebraic equation solving. However, research has not been conducted to evaluate whether this holds true when involving geometry input to facilitate quantitative problem-solving. We developed a bimodal (graphing geometric shapes and writing algebraic expressions) user interface, in order to conduct a within-subject, controlled experiment with 24 college students and varied two types of geometry input: 1) sketch-based input and 2) structured input. The sketch-based input was significantly faster than the structured input, but there were no significant differences based on perception and cognition. However, after a post-hoc analysis, we found a significant interaction effect on perception between prior knowledge and geometry input. Novice students preferred the sketch-based input, but advanced students preferred the structured input. Our study implies that natural sketch-based input may be less preferable than structured input for geometry-based interfaces toward math problem-solving.
論文アブストラクト： Most web applications are designed as one-size-fits-all, despite considerable variation in people's expertise, physical abilities, and other factors that impact interaction. For example, some web applications require the use of a mouse, precluding use by many people with severe motor disabilities. Other applications require laborious manual input that a skilled developer could automate if the application were scriptable. This paper presents Genie, a system that automatically reverse engineers an abstract model of the underlying commands in a web application, then enables interaction with that functionality through alternative interfaces and other input modalities (e.g., speech, keyboard, or command line input). Genie comprises an abstract model of command properties, behaviors, and dependencies as well as algorithms that reverse engineer this model from an existing web application through static and dynamic program analysis. We evaluate Genie by developing several interfaces that automatically add support for speech, keyboard, and command line input to arbitrary web applications.
論文アブストラクト： We propose a novel perspective on the design of toolbar buttons that aims to increase keyboard shortcut accessibility. IconHK implements this perspective by blending visual cues that convey keyboard shortcut information into toolbar buttons without denaturing the pictorial representation of their command. We introduce three design strategies to embed the hotkey, a visual encoding to convey the modifiers, and a magnification factor that determines the blending ratio between the pictogram of the button and the visual representation of the keyboard shortcut. Two studies examine the benefits of IconHK for end-users and provide insights from professional designers on the practicality of our approach for creating iconsets. Building on these insights, we develop a tool to assist designers in applying the IconHK design principle.
論文アブストラクト： We evaluate the performance and usability of mouse-based, touch-based, and tangible interaction for manipulating objects in a 3D virtual environment. This comparison is a step toward a better understanding of the limitations and benefits of these existing interaction techniques, with the ultimate goal of facilitating an easy transition between the different 3D data exploration environments. For this purpose we analyze participants' performance in 3D manipulation using a docking task. We measured completion times, docking accuracy, as well as subjective criteria such as fatigue, workload, and preference. Our results show that the three input modalities provide similar levels of precision but require different completion times. We also discuss our qualitative observations as well as people's preferences and put our findings into context of the application domain of 3D data analysis environments.