論文アブストラクト： HCI is focused on improving the interactions we have with technology and innovating new types of interactions, as well as expanding the types of people for whom those interactions are designed. Central to these efforts is the simultaneously empowering and contested construct of the "user." This paper examines what the construct of the user highlights, as well as what it conceals. We introduce post-userism, a perspective that simultaneously acknowledges the limits of, and proposes alternatives to, the central construct of the user as proxy for the "human" in HCI. Drawing on developments across the historical trajectory of HCI, we articulate how the user is enacted across four different levels of representation-systems, interface, design process, and the ideology and identify situations where the user breaks down. Synthesizing prior work, we offer a series of strategies for grappling with such situations. In doing so, we seek to overcome the limitations imposed by the user and develop a language that will aid in evolving the foundations of HCI by asking what, exactly, we place at the center of our scholarship and design.
論文アブストラクト： This paper examines the strategies of cycling advocates when deploying digital tools in their advocacy work as they support and create better cycling infrastructure and policies. Over the course of two years, we interviewed and conducted design-based fieldwork in two large U.S. cities with individuals and advocacy organizations, learning about the goals, motivations, and constraints that inform their work in their respective urban homes. Our design-based investigation and fieldwork advance a deeper, situated understanding of the role that computing technology plays when engaging across multiple sites of advocacy work. From this, we add detail to the connections across resources, identities, and issues and continue to advance the emerging area of digital civics, which seeks to design tools that support relational civic interactions across multiple categories of civic actors.
論文アブストラクト： Recent innovations in online, social and interactive media have led to the emergence of new forms of documentary, such as interactive documentaries ('i-Docs'), with qualities that lend themselves to more open and inclusive production structures. Still, little is known about the experience of making and/or participating-in these kinds of documentary. Our two-year in-the-wild study engaged a large community-of-interest in the production of an i-Doc to explore the ethically-desirable yet challenging aim of enabling multiple subjects to have agency and control over their representation in a documentary. Our study reveals insights into the experiences of participating in an i-Doc and highlights key sociotechnical challenges. We argue that new sociotechnical infrastructure is needed, that frames both "executory" and "structural" forms of participation as symbiotic elements of a co-design process.
論文アブストラクト： Computation is a powerful artistic medium. Artists with experience in programming have demonstrated the unique creative opportunities of using code to make art. Currently, manual artists interested in using procedural techniques must undergo the difficult process of learning to program, and must adopt tools and practices far removed from those to which they are accustomed. We hypothesize that, through the right direct manipulation interface, we can enable accessible and expressive procedural art creation. To explore this, we developed Para, a digital illustration tool that supports the creation of declarative constraints in vector artwork. Para's constraints enable procedural relationships while facilitating live manual control and non-linear editing. Constraints can be combined with duplication behaviors and ordered collections of artwork to produce complex, dynamic compositions. We use the results of two open-ended studies with professional artists and designers to provide guidelines for accessible tools that integrate manual and procedural expression.