Session:「Markets in the Global South」

Market Practices and the Bazaar: Technology Consumption in ICT Markets in the Global South

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025970

論文アブストラクト: Local informal markets or bazaars play a central role in embedding the adoption, consumption, and reproduction of digital technologies within the economic and cultural fabric of the Global South. This paper presents ethnographic accounts of informal ICT markets in two sites, one in India and the other in Bangladesh, and assesses how technology consumption unfolds within local practices. Building on social practice theory, this paper depicts the role of materiality, relationships, and situated knowledge in the functioning of a bazaar. We discuss how this knowledge expands our understanding of the evaluation of technology and technical expertise, and the persistence of these informal spaces despite the uptake of corporatized technology marketplaces. We argue that the bazaar represents a special kind of local voice that enriches the HCI scholarship in postcolonial computing.

日本語のまとめ:

インドとバングラデシュにおける非公式なICT市場のフィールドワーク報告書.バザールの機能における主な3つの役割を説明し,それら知識がどのようにして技術や専門知識の評価の理解を拡大するか,また非公式空間の持続性についてそれぞれ議論.

Cinehacking Cape Town - Embracing Informality in Pursuit of High Quality Media

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025481

論文アブストラクト: Although many common tools of media making such as video cameras have become more accessible in recent years, many remain inaccessible. Cinematography, lighting and sound-recording equipment for example can be prohibitively expensive to obtain, complex to configure, and/or require specialist knowledge to operate effectively. These barriers can prevent non-professionals who want to produce high-quality media from being able to. Cinehack is an ongoing project to research ways to overcome these barriers. In this paper, we specifically report on Cinehack: Cape Town, a participatory media making project. By co-producing hip hop videos within a community for whom media making is often a "means-to-an-end", we were able gain insights into the kinds of support needed to enable high quality media making by non-professionals. Specifically, we highlight ways to meet users' needs by embracing informal codes of practice via experimental making and peer-support.

日本語のまとめ:

非専門家でも高品質なメディアを制作できる方法を模索するプロジェクト. http://www.cinehack.com/cinehack-cape-town/ 5つのアーティストグループとHipHopビデオの共同制作を行い,企画から撮影,ポストプロダクションまでの制作過程をグループ毎に詳細に報告されている.

Informality and Invisibility: Traditional Technologies as Tools for Collaboration in an Informal Market

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025643

論文アブストラクト: This paper explores how actors in local markets in the Global South adapt traditional communication technologies to successfully collaborate to sustain the markets and their business practices. Drawing on ethnographic observations at a local technology goods market in Bangalore, India, the study details the use of a landline telephone intercom system as the primary tool for business communication in the market. Through analyzing how the intercom system relates to informality and physical space, the paper argues that it bridges the formal with the informal, and helps facilitate informal business practices while also allowing them to remain hidden from the formal regulatory gaze of the state.

日本語のまとめ:

インドのバンガロールにおけるローカルマーケットの民族誌を提示し,ビジネスコミュニケーションの主なツールとして固定電話インターコムシステムが利用されている状況について説明.インフォーマルサービスの強みを確認.

From Margins to Seams: Imbrication, Inclusion, and Torque in the Aadhaar Identification Project

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025910

論文アブストラクト: Problems of marginalization and inclusion are central to HCI scholarship and impact in the world, but are badly named in the binary models of access that currently dominate the field. Building on prior work in ICTD and infrastructure studies, this paper explores the problem of inclusion through historical and ethnographic study of Aadhaar, India's biometrics-based national identification project. We illustrate tensions between Aadhaar users' ability to register, authenticate and successfully deploy their registered identity to participate in the Public Distribution System (PDS), a government scheme that provides subsidized food grains to the Indian poor. We argue that rather than an all-or-nothing state, inclusion in ICTD infrastructures is an ongoing and fragile process, achieved (unevenly) at the seams of multiple interconnected systems. Finally, we show that questions of (effective) inclusion are determined not just at margins of a system (who is in and who is out) but also through the artful and often challenging negotiation of the seams that run through and connect complex distributed infrastructures.

日本語のまとめ:

10億人以上が登録されているインドの個人識別プロジェクト「Aadhaar」と,「Aadhaar」と連携しようとするシステムの間で起こる摩擦についてのフィールドワークをまとめたもの.