論文アブストラクト： Crowd diversity is a key attribute that impacts crowd performance in online collaboration systems. As a structural composition of a crowd, diversity is likely to influence crowd performance through communication processes during collaboration. This study examined how diversity influenced crowd performance under different conditions of task conflict and communication in Wikipedia article production. With a sample of 5,899 articles, we found that contribution diversity positively predicted crowd performance, whereas experience diversity was negatively related to performance. In addition, task communication and conflict partially mediated the relationship between crowd diversity and performance. Task communication positively predicted performance for both forms of diversity. Task conflict, on the other hand, was positively predicted by expertise diversity, but had negative associations with contribution diversity and performance. The findings help unpack the reasons for differential effects of diversity on crowd performance, and demonstrate the importance of including communication variables when studying online crowd collaboration.
論文アブストラクト： In addition to encyclopedia articles and software, peer production communities produce structured data, e.g., Wikidata and OpenStreetMap's metadata. Structured data from peer production communities has become increasingly important due to its use by computational applications, such as CartoCSS, MapBox, and Wikipedia infoboxes. However, this structured data is usable by applications only if it follows standards. We did an interview study focused on OpenStreetMap's knowledge production processes to investigate how -- and how successfully -- this community creates and applies its data standards. Our study revealed a fundamental tension between the need to produce structured data in a standardized way and OpenStreetMap's tradition of contributor freedom. We extracted six themes that manifested this tension and three overarching concepts, correctness, community, and code, which help make sense of and synthesize the themes. We also offered suggestions for improving OpenStreetMap's knowledge production processes, including new data models, sociotechnical tools, and community practices (e.g. stronger leadership).
論文アブストラクト： For online communities to be successful, they must retain an adequate number of members who contribute to the community. The amount and type of communication members receive can play an important role in generating and sustaining members' commitment to it. However, the communication that members find valuable may change with their tenure in the community. This paper examines how the communication members receive in an health support community influences their commitment and how this influence changes with their tenure in the community. Commitment was operationalized with three measures: self-reported attachment, continued participation in the community, and responding to others. Results show that receiving communication was generally associated with increased commitment across the three measures, with its impact increasing with members' tenure. However, the average amount of informational and emotional support members received per message was associated with decreased commitment. Results have implications for interventions to encourage members' commitment to their communities throughout their history in the community.
論文アブストラクト： Why do people start new online communities? Previous research has studied what helps communities to grow and what motivates contributors, but the reasons that people create new communities in the first place remain unclear. We present the results of a survey of over 300 founders of new communities on the online wiki hosting site Wikia.com. We analyze the motivations and goals of wiki creators, finding that founders have diverse reasons for starting wikis and diverse ways of defining their success. Many founders see their communities as occupying narrow topics, and neither seek nor expect a large group of contributors. We also find that founders with differing goals approach community building differently. We argue that community platform designers can create interfaces that support the diverse goals of founders more effectively.
論文アブストラクト： Maintaining participation beyond the initial period of engagement is critical for peer production systems. Theory suggests that an increase in motivation is expected with contributors' movement from the community periphery to the core. Less is known, however, about how specific motivations change over time. We fill this gap by focusing on individual motivational paths in the formative periods of engagement, exploring which motivations change and how. We collected data on various instrumental and non-instrumental motivations at two points in study participants? Wikipedia career: when they started editing and again after six months. We found that non-instrumental motivations (including collective and intrinsic motives) decreased significantly over time, in contrast with socially-driven motivations such as norm-oriented motivates which did not change and social motives which increased marginally. The findings offer new insights into newcomers' evolving motivations, with implications for designing and managing peer-production systems.