論文アブストラクト： WritLarge is a freeform canvas for early-stage design on electronic whiteboards with pen+touch input. The system aims to support a higher-level flow of interaction by 'chunking' the traditionally disjoint steps of selection and action into unified selection-action phrases. This holistic goal led us to address two complementary aspects: SELECTION, for which we devise a new technique known as the Zoom-Catcher that integrates pinch-to-zoom and selection in a single gesture for fluidly selecting and acting on content; plus: ACTION, where we demonstrate how this addresses the combined issues of navigating, selecting, and manipulating content. In particular, the designer can transform select ink strokes in flexible and easily-reversible representations via semantic, structural, and temporal axes of movement that are defined as conceptual 'moves' relative to the specified content.This approach dovetails zooming with lightweight specification of scope as well as the evocation of context-appropriate commands, at-hand, in a location-independent manner. This establishes powerful new primitives that can help to scaffold higher-level tasks, thereby unleashing the expressive power of ink in a compelling manner.
論文アブストラクト： This paper sheds light on gaps and discrepancies between the experiences afforded by analog pens and their digital counterparts. Despite the long history (and recent renaissance) of digital pens, the literature still lacks a comprehensive survey of what types of marks people make and what motivates them to use ink-both analog and digital in daily life. To capture the diversity of inking behaviors and tease out the unique affordances of pen-and ink, we conducted a diary study with 26 participants from diverse backgrounds. From analysis of 493 diary entries we identified 8 analog pen-and-ink activities, and 9 affordances of pens. We contextualized and contrasted these findings using a survey with 1,633 respondents and a follow-up diary study with 30 participants, observing digital pens. Our analysis reveals gaps and research opportunities based on pen affordances not yet fully explored in the literature.
論文アブストラクト： Modern tablets support simultaneous pen and touch input, but it remains unclear how to best leverage this capability for bimanual input when the nonpreferred hand holds the tablet. We explore Thumb + Pen interactions that support simultaneous pen and touch interaction, with both hands, in such situations. Our approach engages the thumb of the device-holding hand, such that the thumb interacts with the touch screen in an indirect manner, thereby complementing the direct input provided by the preferred hand. For instance, the thumb can determine how pen actions (articulated with the opposite hand) are interpreted. Alternatively, the pen can point at an object, while the thumb manipulates one or more of its parameters through indirect touch. Our techniques integrate concepts in a novel way that derive from marking menus, spring-loaded modes, indirect input, and multi-touch conventions. Our overall approach takes the form of a set of probes, each representing a meaningfully distinct class of application. They serve as an initial exploration of the design space at a level which will help determine the feasibility of supporting bimanual interaction in such contexts, and the viability of the Thumb + Pen techniques in so doing.
論文アブストラクト： This paper presents the results of a 36 participant empirical comparison of touch mode-switching. Six techniques are evaluated, spanning current and future techniques: long press, non-dominant hand, two-fingers, hard press, knuckle, and thumb-on-finger. Two poses are controlled for, seated with the tablet on a desk and standing with the tablet held on the forearm. Findings indicate pose has no effect on mode switching time and little effect on error rate; using two-fingers is fastest while long press is much slower; non-preferred hand and thumb-on-finger also rate highly in subjective scores. The experiment protocol is based on Li et al.'s pen mode-switching study, enabling a comparison of touch and pen mode switching. Among the common techniques, the non-dominant hand is faster than pressure with touch, whereas no significant difference had been found for pen. Our work addresses the lack of empirical evidence comparing touch mode-switching techniques and provides guidance to practitioners when choosing techniques and to researchers when designing new mode-switching methods.