Session:「The Infrastructure of Trust」

Growing the Blockchain Information Infrastructure

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025959

論文アブストラクト: In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator's stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen from the perspective of heterogeneous entrepreneurial agents. It supplements existing accounts of the "when" and "how" of infrastructure, with a lens for examining the "why" of infrastructure.

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Design for Trust: An Exploration of the Challenges and Opportunities of Bitcoin Users

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025886

論文アブストラクト: Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency which has received increasing interest over the last five years. Built upon a decentralized peer to peer system, it supports transparent, fast, cost effective, and irreversible transactions, without the need for trusting third party financial institutions. We know however little about people's motivation and experience with bitcoin currency. This paper reports on interviews with 20 bitcoin users in Malaysia about their experience and trust challenges. Findings show that bitcoins are used more as store of value for speculative investment or savings' protection. The paper advances the HCI theories on trust by identifying main bitcoin characteristics and their impact on trust, such as decentralization, unregulation, embedded expertise, and reputation, as well as transactions' transparency, low cost, and easiness to complete. We discuss insecure transactions, the risk of dishonest traders and its mitigating strategies. The paper concludes with design implications including support for the transparency of two-way transactions, tools for materializing trust, and tools for supporting reversible transactions.

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Infrastructure as Creative Action: Online Buying, Selling, and Delivery in Phnom Penh

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025889

論文アブストラクト: This paper describes a complex global sales and logistics network based in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, which utilizes Internet tools (particularly Facebook) as well as a suite of offline tools such as feature phones, paper receipts, and motorcycles to facilitate the buying and selling of clothes and other commodities. Against the gap or import models that sometimes limit HCI understandings of computational change in non-Western environments, we argue that the consumers, business owners, delivery drivers, and call center staff play active and formative roles in producing this infrastructure, integrating new tools into older cultural practices and determining how they work within the limits and conventions of the environment. We argue that resourceful and imaginative activities such as these constitute a form of creative infrastructural action and are central to the ways that new tools circulate in the world, though they often go unrecognized by HCI as innovation.

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Supporting Cultures of Making: Technology, Policy, Visions, and Myths

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3025453.3025975

論文アブストラクト: Recent HCI research has linked social policy to design, e.g., in issues such as public safety, privacy, and social justice. One area where policy, technology, and design intersect is in the vision of the creative economy. In that vision, creativity, distinct local/regional cultural practices, technology, and entrepreneurship synergistically produce social innovation on a scale sufficient to drive economies. Culture and creative industries (CCI) policy specifies how governments intervene to support such clusters. Maker cultures are seen as central to this vision, but comparatively little is known about how makers produce culture. We offer a critical analysis of several encounters between CCI policy in Taiwan and its maker scene. These encounters reveal misalignments that undercut efforts intended to support making. We propose that supporting any creative culture, including making, entails a serious commitment to understanding its culture, including its cultural contents and their means of production. We further argue that scholarly rigor in cultivating cultural appreciation is just as fundamental as scholarly rigor in empirically representing cultural practices when it comes to pursuing such a cultural understanding.

日本語のまとめ:

Honorable Mention.寄与:1.台湾のメイカーズ・カルチャーと支政策とのズレを分析.2.HCI研究者が「カルチャー」をどう観察・分析したらいいか考察.