論文アブストラクト： Blocks-based programming environments are a popular tool to teach children to program, but they rely heavily on visual metaphors and are therefore not fully accessible for children with visual impairments. We evaluated existing blocks-based environments and identified five major accessibility barriers for visually impaired users. We explored techniques to overcome these barriers in an interview with a teacher of the visually impaired and formative studies on a touchscreen blocks-based environment with five children with visual impairments. We distill our findings on usable touchscreen interactions into guidelines for designers of blocks-based environments.
論文アブストラクト： Children living with visual impairments (VIs) are increasingly educated in mainstream rather than special schools. But knowledge about the challenges they face in inclusive schooling environments and how to design technology to overcome them remains scarce. We report findings from a field study involving interviews and observations of educators and children with/without VIs in mainstream schools, in which we identified the "teaching assistant bubble" as a potential barrier to group learning, social play and independent mobility. We present co-design activities blending elements of future workshops, multisensory crafting, fictional inquiry and bodystorming, demonstrating that children with and without VIs can jointly lead design processes and explore design spaces reflective of mixed visual abilities and shared experiences. We extend previous research by characterising challenges and opportunities for improving inclusive education of children with VIs in mainstream schools, in terms of balancing assistance and independence, and reflect on the process and outcomes of co-designing with mixed-ability groups in this context.
論文アブストラクト： With a growing call for an increased emphasis on computing in school curricula, there is a need to make computing accessible to a diversity of learners. One potential approach is to extend the use of physical toolkits, which have been found to encourage collaboration, sustained engagement and effective learning in classrooms in general. However, little is known as to whether and how these benefits can be leveraged in special needs schools, where learners have a spectrum of distinct cognitive and social needs. Here, we investigate how introducing a physical toolkit can support learning about computing concepts for special education needs (SEN) students in their classroom. By tracing how the students' interactions-both with the physical toolkit and with each other-unfolded over time, we demonstrate how the design of both the form factor and the learning tasks embedded in a physical toolkit contribute to collaboration, comprehension and engagement when learning in mixed SEN classrooms.
論文アブストラクト： Children with insufficient exposure to language during critical developmental periods in infancy are at risk for cognitive, language, and social deficits . This is especially difficult for deaf infants, as more than 90% are born to hearing parents with little sign language experience . We created an integrated multi-agent system involving a robot and virtual human designed to augment language exposure for 6-12 month old infants. Human-machine design for infants is challenging, as most screen-based media are unlikely to support learning in . While presently, robots are incapable of the dexterity and expressiveness required for signing, even if it existed, developmental questions remain about the capacity for language from artificial agents to engage infants. Here we engineered the robot and avatar to provide visual language to effect socially contingent human conversational exchange. We demonstrate the successful engagement of our technology through case studies of deaf and hearing infants.