論文アブストラクト： Web user interfaces today leverage many common GUI design patterns, including navigation bars and menus (hierarchical structure), tabular content presentation, and scrolling. These visual-spatial cues enhance the interaction experience of sighted users. However, the linear nature of screen translation tools currently available to blind users make it difficult to understand or navigate these structures. We introduce Spatial Region Interaction Techniques (SPRITEs) for nonvisual access: a novel method for navigating two-dimensional structures using the keyboard surface. SPRITEs 1) preserve spatial layout, 2) enable bimanual interaction, and 3) improve the end user experience. We used a series of design probes to explore different methods for keyboard surface interaction. Our evaluation of SPRITEs shows that three times as many participants were able to complete spatial tasks with SPRITEs than with their preferred current technology.
論文アブストラクト： Braille input enables fast nonvisual entry speeds on mobile touchscreen devices. Yet, the lack of tactile cues commonly results in typing errors, which are hard to correct. We propose Hybrid-Brailler, an input solution that combines physical and gestural interaction to provide fast and accurate Braille input. We use the back of the device for physical chorded input while freeing the touchscreen for gestural interaction. Gestures are used in editing operations, such as caret movement, text selection, and clipboard control, enhancing the overall text entry experience. We conducted two user studies to assess both input and editing performance. Results show that Hybrid-Brailler supports fast entry rates as its virtual counterpart, while significantly increasing input accuracy. Regarding editing performance, when compared with the mainstream technique, Hybrid-Brailler shows performance benefits of 21% in speed and increased editing accuracy. We finish with lessons learned for designing future nonvisual input and editing techniques.
論文アブストラクト： In this paper, we present a drawing workstation for blind people using a two-dimensional tactile pin-matrix display for in- and output. Four different input modalities, namely menu-based, gesture-based, freehand-stylus and a Time-of-Flight (ToF) depth segmentation of real-world object silhouettes, are utilized to create graphical shapes. Users can freely manipulate shapes after creation. Twelve blind users evaluated and compared the four image creation modalities. During evaluation, participants had to copy four different images. The results show that all modalities are highly appropriate for non-visual drawing tasks. There is no generally preferred drawing modality, but most participants rated the robust and well-known menu-based interaction as very good. Furthermore, menu was second in performance and the most accurate drawing modality. Our evaluation demonstrated direct manipulation works well for blind users at the position of the reading hand. In general, our drawing tool allows blind users to create appealing images.
論文アブストラクト： Smartwatches are always-available, provide quick access to information in a mobile setting, and can collect continuous health and fitness data. However, the small interaction space of these wearables may pose challenges for people with upper body motor impairments. To investigate accessible smartwatch interactions for this user group, we conducted two studies. First, we assessed the accessibility of existing smartwatch gestures with 10 participants with motor impairments. We found that not all participants were able to complete button, swipe and tap interactions. In a second study, we adopted a participatory approach to explore smartwatch gesture preferences and to gain insight into alternative, more accessible smartwatch interaction techniques. Eleven participants with motor impairments created gestures for 16 common smartwatch actions on both touchscreen and non-touchscreen (bezel, wristband) areas of the watch and the user's body. We present results from both studies and provide design recommendations.