論文アブストラクト： Many conversational agents (CAs) are developed to answer users' questions in a specialized domain. In everyday use of CAs, user experience may extend beyond satisfying information needs to the enjoyment of conversations with CAs, some of which represent playful interactions. By studying a field deployment of a Human Resource chatbot, we report on users' interest areas in conversational interactions to inform the development of CAs. Through the lens of statistical modeling, we also highlight rich signals in conversational interactions for inferring user satisfaction with the instrumental usage and playful interactions with the agent. These signals can be utilized to develop agents that adapt functionality and interaction styles. By contrasting these signals, we shed light on the varying functions of conversational interactions. We discuss design implications for CAs, and directions for developing adaptive agents based on users' conversational behaviors.
論文アブストラクト： Recent work introduced the notion of emotional challenge as a means to afford more unique and diverse gaming experiences. However, players' experience of emotional challenge has received little empirical attention. It remains unclear whether players enjoy it and what exactly constitutes the challenge thereof. We surveyed 171 players about a challenging or an emotionally challenging experience, and analyzed their responses with regards to what made the experience challenging, their emotional response, and the relation to core player experience constructs. We found that emotional challenge manifested itself in different ways, by confronting players with difficult themes or decisions, as well as having them deal with intense emotions. In contrast to more'conventional' challenge, emotional challenge evoked a wider range of negative emotions and was appreciated significantly more by players. Our findings showcase the appeal of uncomfortable gaming experiences, and extend current conceptualizations of challenge in games.
論文アブストラクト： The potential of narrative-rich games to impact emotions, attitudes, and behavior brings with it exciting opportunities and implications within both entertainment and serious game contexts. However, effects are not always consistent, potentially due to game choices not always being perceived as meaningful by the players. To examine these perceptual variations, we used a mixed-method approach. A qualitative study first investigated meaningful game choices from the players' perspectives. Building on the themes developed in this first study, a quantitative study experimentally examined the effect of meaningful game choices on player experiences of appreciation, enjoyment, and narrative engagement. Results highlight the importance of moral, social, and consequential characteristics in creating meaningful game choices, which positively affected appreciation. Meaningfulness of game choices may therefore be crucial for narrative-rich games and interactive narratives to impact players.
論文アブストラクト： Idle games are a recent minimalist gaming phenomenon in which the game is left running with little player interaction. We deepen understanding of idle games and their characteristics by developing a taxonomy and identifying game features. This paper examines 66 idle games using a grounded theory approach to analyze play, game mechanics, rewards, interactivity, progress rate, and user interface. To establish a clearly bounded definition of idle games, we analyzed 10 non-idle games with the same approach. We discuss how idle games move players from playing to planning, how they question dominant assumptions about gameplay, and their unusual use of resources such as player attention and computer cycles. Our work illuminates opportunities for the design of idle games, suggests design implications, and provides a framework for researchers to clearly articulate questions about this genre.