論文アブストラクト： Based on an analysis of 49 popular contemporary video games, we develop a descriptive framework of visual interaction cues in video games. These cues are used to inform players what can be interacted with, where to look, and where to go within the game world. These cues vary along three dimensions: the purpose of the cue, the visual design of the cue, and the circumstances under which the cue is shown. We demonstrate that this framework can also be used to describe interaction cues for augmented reality applications. Beyond this, we show how the framework can be used to generatively derive new design ideas for visual interaction cues in augmented reality experiences.
論文アブストラクト： Sound and virtual reality (VR) are two important output modalities for creating an immersive player experience (PX). While prior research suggests that sounds might contribute to a more immersive experience in games played on screens and mobile displays, there is not yet evidence of these effects of sound on PX in VR. To address this, we conducted a within-subjects experiment using a commercial horror-adventure game to study the effects of a VR and monitor-display version of the same game on PX. Subsequently, we explored, in a between-subjects study, the effects of audio dimensionality on PX in VR. Results indicate that audio has a more implicit influence on PX in VR because of the impact of the overall sensory experience and that audio dimensionality in VR may not be a significant factor contributing to PX. Based on our findings and observations, we provide five design guidelines for VR games.
論文アブストラクト： This paper presents a review of intrinsic motivation in player modeling, with a focus on simulation-based game testing. Modern AI agents can learn to win many games; from a game testing perspective, a remaining research problem is how to model the aspects of human player behavior not explained by purely rational and goal-driven decision making. A major piece of this puzzle is constituted by intrinsic motivations, i.e., psychological needs that drive behavior without extrinsic reinforcement such as game score. We first review the common intrinsic motivations discussed in player psychology research and artificial intelligence, and then proceed to systematically review how the various motivations have been implemented in simulated player agents. Our work reveals that although motivations such as competence and curiosity have been studied in AI, work on utilizing them in simulation-based game testing is sparse, and other motivations such as social relatedness, immersion, and domination appear particularly underexplored.
論文アブストラクト： We introduce the racing auditory display (RAD), an audio-based user interface that allows players who are blind to play the same types of racing games that sighted players can play with an efficiency and sense of control that are similar to what sighted players have. The RAD works with a standard pair of headphones and comprises two novel sonification techniques: the sound slider for understanding a car's speed and trajectory on a racetrack and the turn indicator system for alerting players of the direction, sharpness, length, and timing of upcoming turns. In a user study with 15 participants (3 blind; the rest blindfolded and analyzed separately), we found that players preferred the RAD's interface over that of Mach 1, a popular blind-accessible racing game. We also found that the RAD allows an avid gamer who is blind to race as well on a complex racetrack as casual sighted players can, without a significant difference between lap times or driving paths.