Session:「Future currencies and banking」

Digital Payment and Its Discontents: Street Shops and the Indian Government's Push for Cashless Transactions

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173803

論文アブストラクト: In November 2016, the Government of India banned the vast majority of the nation's banknotes in a move referred to as 'demonetization', with the stated goals of fighting corruption, terrorism, and eventually expanding digital transactions. In this study of 200 shop-keepers in Mumbai and Bengaluru, we found that cash shortage increased digital payment adoption but that digital payments fell after new banknotes became available. Digital payment adoption depended on the nature and scope of transactions, type of product sold, as well as personal factors specific to business owners such as comfort and familiarity with other digital technologies and online transactions. Using theoretical work on market and information behavior, we examined environmental pushes for technology adoption against prevalent transactional practices, trust, and control. We propose that the move toward digital payments must be framed within a larger undertaking of technology-driven modernity that drives these initiatives, rather than just the efficiency or productivity gains digital payments present.

日本語のまとめ:

インドで2016年に高額紙幣が廃止され、一時的に電子決済が増えたがその後減った。200人の店主にインタビューをとった結果、新技術の普及には使いやすさとITに詳しい身内の存在が重要であることが明らかになった。

Making Sense of Blockchain Applications: A Typology for HCI

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174032

論文アブストラクト: Blockchain is an emerging infrastructural technology that is proposed to fundamentally transform the ways in which people transact, trust, collaborate, organize and identify themselves. In this paper, we construct a typology of emerging blockchain applications, consider the domains in which they are applied, and identify distinguishing features of this new technology. We argue that there is a unique role for the HCI community in linking the design and application of blockchain technology towards lived experience and the articulation of human values. In particular, we note how the accounting of transactions, a trust in immutable code and algorithms, and the leveraging of distributed crowds and publics around vast interoperable databases all relate to longstanding issues of importance for the field. We conclude by highlighting core conceptual and methodological challenges for HCI researchers beginning to work with blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.

日本語のまとめ:

仮想通貨はブロックチェーンの応用例のあくまで1例である。本稿では、類型学に基づきブロックチェーンの応用例を7種に大別し、とりわけHCI分野が貢献できる項目について広く深く述べる。

An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174179

論文アブストラクト: As cryptocurrencies gain popularity and credibility, marketplaces for cryptocurrencies are growing in importance. Understanding the dynamics of these markets can help to assess how viable the cryptocurrnency ecosystem is and how design choices affect market behavior. One existential threat to cryptocurrencies is dramatic fluctuations in traders' willingness to buy or sell. Using a novel experimental methodology, we conducted an online experiment to study how susceptible traders in these markets are to peer influence from trading behavior. We created bots that executed over one hundred thousand trades costing less than a penny each in 217 cryptocurrencies over the course of six months. We find that individual "buy" actions led to short-term increases in subsequent buy-side activity hundreds of times the size of our interventions. From a design perspective, we note that the design choices of the exchange we study may have promoted this and other peer influence effects, which highlights the potential social and economic impact of HCI in the design of digital institutions.

日本語のまとめ:

仮想通貨のトレーダーは市場の変動に対してどのような反応を見せるのか。実際の市場でランダムな取引をするBOTを作成し、10万件の取引をした結果、数100ドルレベルの個人売買が、市場に2%もの大きな影響を与えた。