Session:「Gamification, Personalization, Tracking」

Gamification for Self-Tracking: From World of Warcraft to the Design of Personal Informatics Systems

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173654

論文アブストラクト: World of Warcraft (WoW) may be a source of inspiration to enrich the Personal Informatics systems user's experience and, at the same time, improve gamification design. Through the findings of a four-year reflexive ethnography in WoW, I outline how its game design elements support players in making sense of their own data, emphasizing how "game numbers" are turned into meanings. On the basis of the study results, I propose a series of design considerations to be used in the design of self-tracking systems, which recommend to embody data into digital entities, provide different analytical tools depending on the users' expertise through a flexible model, and foster the formation of "communities of practice" in order to support learning processes.

日本語のまとめ:

World of Warcraft(WoW)は,ユーザの経験を豊かにし,ゲーミフィケーションのデザインを向上させる可能性があります. 今回の結果を踏まえることで,セルフトラッキングの設計や学習プロセスを支援するための「実践的なコミュニティ」の形成を促進する.

Inferring Loop Invariants through Gamification

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173805

論文アブストラクト: In today's modern world, bugs in software systems incur significant costs. One promising approach to improve software quality is automated software verification. In this approach, an automated tool tries to prove the software correct once and for all. Although significant progress has been made in this direction, there are still many cases where automated tools fail. We focus specifically on one aspect of software verification that has been notoriously hard to automate: inferring loop invariants that are strong enough to enable verification. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem through gamification and crowdsourcing. In particular, we present a puzzle game where players find loop invariants without being aware of it, and without requiring any expertise on software verification. We show through an experiment with Mechanical Turk users that players enjoy the game, and are able to solve verification tasks that automated state-of-the-art tools cannot.

日本語のまとめ:

現代では,ソフトウェアシステムのバグには大きなコストがかかる.自動ソフトウェア検証では失敗する難しいソフトウェア検証もある.このソフトウェアを使うことで,専門家じゃないプレイヤーによっていくつかの難しい問題が解決した.

Empirical Support for a Causal Relationship Between Gamification and Learning Outcomes

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173885

論文アブストラクト: Preparing for exams is an important yet stressful time for many students. Self-testing is known to be an effective preparation strategy, yet some students lack motivation to engage or persist in self-testing activities. Adding game elements to a platform supporting self-testing may increase engagement and, by extension, exam performance. We conduct a randomized controlled experiment (n=701) comparing the effect of two game elements -- a points system and a badge system -- used individually and in combination. We find that the badge system elicits significantly higher levels of voluntary self-testing activity and this effect is particularly pronounced amongst a relatively small cohort. Importantly, this increased activity translates to a significant improvement in exam scores. Our data supports a causal relationship between gamification and learning outcomes, mediated by self-testing behavior. This provides empirical support for Landers' theory of gamified learning when the gamified activity is conducted prior to measuring learning outcomes.

日本語のまとめ:

試験準備は学生にとってストレスである. この論文は学生の試験の準備を支援するシステムに関する内容である. 学生同士で練習問題を保存、公開できるようになっている. .通常の質問画面とポイント制やバッジ獲得などのゲームと比べて学生の利用を調査している.

Personalizing Persuasive Strategies in Gameful Systems to Gamification User Types

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174009

論文アブストラクト: Persuasive gameful systems are effective tools for motivating behaviour change. Research has shown that tailoring these systems to individuals can increase their efficacy; however, there is little knowledge on how to personalize them. We conducted a large-scale study of 543 participants to investigate how different gamification user types responded to ten persuasive strategies depicted in storyboards representing persuasive gameful health systems. Our results reveal that people's gamification user types play significant roles in the perceived persuasiveness of different strategies. People scoring high in the 'player' user type tend to be motivated by competition, comparison, cooperation, and reward while 'disruptors' are likely to be demotivated by punishment, goal-setting, simulation, and self-monitoring. 'Socialisers' could be motivated using any of the strategies; they are the most responsive to persuasion overall. Finally, we contribute to CHI research and practice by offering design guidelines for tailoring persuasive gameful systems to each gamification user type.

日本語のまとめ:

モチベーションを与えるゲームは効果的で説得力もあり, 人の行動も変化させることができる. しかし, パーソナライズされたシステムはほとんどない. この研究では, 競争、比較、協力、報酬などの戦略を変えたときユーザにどのような影響があるかを調査する.