Session:「Geography and Location」

Distance and Attraction: Gravity Models for Geographic Content Production

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173722

論文アブストラクト: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), such as contributions to OpenStreetMap and geotagged Wikipedia articles, is often assumed to be produced locally. However, recent work has found that peer-produced VGI is frequently contributed by non-locals. We evaluate this approach across hundreds of content types from Wikipedia, OpenStreetMap, and eBird, and show that these models can describe more than 90% of "VGI flows" for some content types. Our findings advance geographic HCI theory, suggesting some spatial mechanisms underpinning VGI production. We also discuss design implications that can help (a) human and algorithmic consumers of VGI evaluate the perspectives it contains and (b) address geographic coverage variations in these platforms (e.g. via more effective volunteer recruitment strategies).

日本語のまとめ:

ボランタリー地理情報(VGI)は、情報提供者の居る場所によりその情報の質や量が変わる。この研究では、VGIの質や量が提供者の場所によりどのように影響するかを重力モデルを用いてモデル化し、その評価を行った。

Defining and Predicting the Localness of Volunteered Geographic Information using Ground Truth Data

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173839

論文アブストラクト: Many applications of geotagged content are predicated on the concept of localness (e.g., local restaurant recommendation, mining social media for local perspectives on an issue). However, definitions of who is a "local" in a given area are typically informal and ad-hoc and, as a result, approaches for localness assessment that have been used in the past have not been formally validated. In this paper, we begin the process of addressing these gaps in the literature. Specifically, we (1) formalize definitions of "local" using themes identified in a 30-paper literature review, (2) develop the first ground truth localness dataset consisting of 132 Twitter users and 58,945 place-tagged tweets, and (3) use this dataset to evaluate existing localness assessment approaches. Our results provide important methodological guidance to the large body of research and practice that depends on the concept of localness and suggest means by which localness assessment can be improved.

日本語のまとめ:

LocalnessがSNS等の分析で定義されずに使われている。そこで30の論文を調査し3つの定義を示し、132人のユーザと地理情報付きtweetから各ユーザのlocalnessを判定する4つの手法の評価を行った。

Bottom-Up Imaginaries: The Cultural-Technical Practice of Inventing Regional Advantage through IT R&D

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173899

論文アブストラクト: Recent HCI research on social creativity and bottom-up innovation has highlighted how concerted efforts by the government policy and business communities to develop innovation ecosystems are increasingly intertwined with IT research and development. We note that many such efforts focus on cultivating regional advantage [20] in the form of innovation hubs that are situated in and leverage distinct sociocultural histories and geographies. Cultivating regional advantage entails achieving broad consensus about what that region's advantage might be, that is, the construction of a regional advantage imaginary beyond the policies, IT supports, and practices to make it happen. Here, we document how an ongoing public debate among makers and manufacturers in Taiwan as a region-distinguished by direct engagement with design, fabrication, prototyping, and manufacturing processes-are proposing pathways toward a regional advantage that both reflects Taiwan's recent sociocultural and economic histories and also its near future aspirations.

日本語のまとめ:

ボトムアップのイノベーションと社会や文化との関わり、そして地域特性を調べた。様々なスキルを持った個人の集まりである台湾のMakerProの調査を行い、台湾におけるイノベーションの問題点を明らかにした。

Spokespeople: Exploring Routes to Action through Citizen-Generated Data

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173979

論文アブストラクト: This paper presents insights from a collaboration with cycling advocates and local authorities to consider how HCI can open productive spaces for citizens to contribute to the realization of social goals. We worked with members of a walking and cycling advocacy organization to explore the potential for technology-mediated data collection to support advocacy and action taking. Based on our initial findings, we developed and deployed Spokespeople-a system to enable people who cycle to collect, curate and make visible their everyday journeys and experiences. We then worked with participants, cycling advocates and local authority transport planners to explore how citizens can contribute beyond data collection, by curating and prioritizing their experiences and exploring possible routes to action. We identify future directions for technology design to support citizens to make meaningful contributions to changes in the city through annotated routes, prioritization and community commissioning processes.

日本語のまとめ:

著者らは、毎日の移動や訪れた場所でのインシデントのデータを収集、管理するシステムSpokepeopleを開発した。そして、人々が得られデータからどのうように意味を見出し、どのように行動するか分析を行った。