論文アブストラクト： The presence of observers and virtual characters can significantly shape our gaming experience. Researchers suppose that most of the basic socio-psychological phenomena are also applicable for digital games. However, the social processes in gaming setups can differ from our experience in other social situations. Our work emphasizes that awareness. Insights are needed for the purposeful design of a game's social setting, specifically in applied contexts of learning and training. Here, we focus on the social facilitation effect, which describes an unconscious change in performance due to the presence of others, by investigating the impact of real observers and virtual agents on player experience and performance in four different games. The results of our four studies show that, in contrast to previous assumptions, in-game success was not significantly influenced by the presence of any social entity, indicating that social facilitation does not generally apply to the context of playing digital games.
論文アブストラクト： In the physical world, teammates develop situation awareness about each other's location, status, and actions through cues such as gaze direction and ambient noise. To support situation awareness, distributed multiplayer games provide awareness cues - information that games automatically make available to players to support cooperative gameplay. The design of awareness cues can be extremely complex, impacting how players experience games and work with teammates. Despite the importance of awareness cues, designers have little beyond experiential knowledge to guide their design. In this work, we describe a design framework for awareness cues, providing insight into what information they provide, how they communicate this information, and how design choices can impact play experience. Our research, based on a grounded theory analysis of current games, is the first to provide a characterization of awareness cues, providing a palette for game designers to improve design practice and a starting point for deeper research into collaborative play.
論文アブストラクト： In competitive co-located gameplay, players use their opponents' gaze to make predictions about their plans while simultaneously managing their own gaze to avoid giving away their plans. This socially competitive dimension is lacking in most online games, where players are out of sight of each other. We conducted a lab study using a strategic online game; finding that (1) players are better at discerning their opponent's plans when shown a live visualisation of the opponent's gaze, and (2) players who are aware that their gaze is tracked will manipulate their gaze to keep their intentions hidden. We describe the strategies that players employed, to various degrees of success, to deceive their opponent through their gaze behaviour. This gaze-based deception adds an effortful and challenging aspect to the competition. Lastly, we discuss the various implications of our findings and its applicability for future game design.
論文アブストラクト： In this paper we propose that game design strategies and theories can be useful tools for supporting the design of innovative socio-technical systems aimed at supporting social co-presence. We support this proposal with an annotated portfolio of a series of research prototype games that investigate sensor affordances and configurations to sustain and enhance social co-presence. We introduce relevant theory from game studies (the magic circle; the MDA (mechanics/dynamics/aesthetics framework)) to help ground and guide the use of game design in HCI practice. We conclude with recommendations for adopting game design as a supplementary research technique, with caveats about the limits of the approach.