Session:「Learning to Program」

How “Wide Walls” Can Increase Engagement: Evidence From a Natural Experiment in Scratch

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173935

論文アブストラクト: A core aim for designing constructionist learning systems and toolkits is enabling "wide walls"-a metaphor used to describe supporting a diverse range of creative outcomes. Ensuring that a broad design space is afforded to learners by a toolkit is a common approach to achieving wide walls. We use econometric methods to provide an empirical test of the wide walls theory through a natural experiment in the Scratch online community. We estimate the causal effect of a policy change that gave a large number of Scratch users access to a more powerful version of Scratch data structures, effectively widening the walls for learners. We show that access to and use of these more powerful new data structures caused learners to use data structures more frequently. Our findings provide support for the theory that wide walls can increase engagement and learning.

日本語のまとめ:

創造的成果の範囲を広げること(ワイドウォール)が、基礎となる概念との関与をどのように高めることができるかに関する実証的研究。一部のユーザーはローカルではなくクラウドサーバーに変数を格納できるようになった.これにより、ユーザーはより興味深いプロジェクトの作成が可能.(オンライン上の得点、チャットなど). この機能導入後、データ構造の使用率の増加(以前にアクセス可能なものを含む)が観察され、関与の増加が示唆された。

Non-Native English Speakers Learning Computer Programming: Barriers, Desires, and Design Opportunities

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173970

論文アブストラクト: People from nearly every country are now learning computer programming, yet the majority of programming languages, libraries, documentation, and instructional materials are in English. What barriers do non-native English speakers face when learning from English-based resources? What desires do they have for improving instructional materials? We investigate these questions by deploying a survey to a programming education website and analyzing 840 responses spanning 86 countries and 74 native languages. We found that non-native English speakers faced barriers with reading instructional materials, technical communication, reading and writing code, and simultaneously learning English and programming. They wanted instructional materials to use simplified English without culturally-specific slang, to use more visuals and multimedia, to use more culturally-agnostic code examples, and to embed inline dictionaries. Programming also motivated some to learn English better and helped clarify logical thinking about natural languages. Based on these findings, we recommend learner-centered design improvements to programming-related instructional resources and tools to make them more accessible to people around the world.

日本語のまとめ:

この論文では、コンピュータプログラミング(86カ国,840の回答)を習得している非英語母国語のスピーカーが直面している課題を調査した。結果に基づき、プログラミング技術の普遍的な設計に向け,ていくつかの提案。

Mismatch of Expectations: How Modern Learning Resources Fail Conversational Programmers

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174085

論文アブストラクト: Conversational programmers represent a class of learners who are not required to write any code, yet try to learn programming to improve their participation in technical conversations. We carried out interviews with 23 conversational programmers to better understand the challenges they face in technical conversations, what resources they choose to learn programming, how they perceive the learning process, and to what extent learning programming actually helps them. Among our key findings, we found that conversational programmers often did not know where to even begin the learning process and ended up using formal and informal learning resources that focus largely on programming syntax and logic. However, since the end goal of conversational programmers was not to build artifacts, modern learning resources usually failed these learners in their pursuits of improving their technical conversations. Our findings point to design opportunities in HCI to invent learner-centered approaches that address the needs of conversational programmers and help them establish common ground in technical conversations.

日本語のまとめ:

本研究では、会話型プログラマー23人にインタビューを行い、学習プロセスを考察した。関連性のある信頼性の高いコンテンツの発見を容易にし、構文やロジックなしでプログラミングの概念を説明するなどが、このタイプのユーザをサポートするためのには有利。

Empowering Families Facing English Literacy Challenges to Jointly Engage in Computer Programming

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174196

論文アブストラクト: Research suggests that parental engagement through Joint Media Engagement (JME) is an important factor in children's learning for coding and programming. Unfortunately, parents with limited technology background may have difficulty supporting their children's access to programming. English-language learning (ELL) families from marginalized communities face particular challenges in understanding and supporting programming, as code is primarily authored using English text. We present BlockStudio, a programming tool for empowering ELL families to jointly engage in introductory coding, using an environment embodying two design principles, text-free and visually concrete. We share a case study involving three community centers serving immigrant and refugee populations. Our findings show ELL families can jointly engage in programming without text, via co-creation and flexible roles, and can create a range of artifacts, indicating understanding of aspects of programming within this environment. We conclude with implications for coding together in ELL families and design ideas for text-free programming research.

日本語のまとめ:

英語を話さない疎外された家族にとって、プログラミングは難しい。「ブロックスタジオ」は、プログラミングに携わるためのテキストを持たないシステム.ケーススタディ結果(難民で構成されたさまざまなコミュニティセンターで実施)。異なるプロジェクトを作成するシステムを使用しているとき、家族間での様々な相互作用が観察された。「ブロックスタジオ」が、英語に堪能ではなくても、家族が共同でプログラムに参加するように促す可能性があることを示唆している。