論文アブストラクト： We present a system that, implemented as an iPhone app controllable from an Apple Watch, can help a blind person backtrack a route taken in a building. This system requires no maps of the building or environment modifications. While traversing a path from a starting location to a destination, the system builds and records a path representation in terms of a sequence of turns and of step counts between turns. If the user wants to backtrack the same path, the system can provide assistance by tracking the user's location in the recorded path, and producing directional information in speech form about the next turns and step counts to follow. The system was tested with six blind participants in a controlled indoor experiment.
論文アブストラクト： Indoor localization technologies can enhance quality of life for blind people by enabling them to independently explore and navigate indoor environments. Researchers typically evaluate their systems in terms of localization accuracy and user behavior along planned routes. We propose two measures of path-following behavior: deviation from optimal route and trajectory variability. Through regression analysis of real-world trajectories from blind users, we identify relationships between a) these measures and b) elements of the environment, route characteristics, localization error, and instructional cues that users receive. Our results provide insights into path-following behavior for turn-by-turn indoor navigation and have implications for the design of future interactions. Moreover, our findings highlight the importance of reporting these environmental factors and route properties in similar studies. We present automated and scalable methods for their calculation and to encourage their reporting for better interpretation and comparison of results across future studies.
論文アブストラクト： Tactile maps are widely used in Orientation and Mobility (O&M) training for people with blindness and severe vision impairment. Commodity 3D printers now offer an alternative way to present accessible graphics, however it is unclear if 3D models offer advantages over tactile equivalents for 2D graphics such as maps. In a controlled study with 16 touch readers, we found that 3D models were preferred, enabled the use of more easily understood icons, facilitated better short term recall and allowed relative height of map elements to be more easily understood. Analysis of hand movements revealed the use of novel strategies for systematic scanning of the 3D model and gaining an overview of the map. Finally, we explored how 3D printed maps can be augmented with interactive audio labels, replacing less practical braille labels. Our findings suggest that 3D printed maps do indeed offer advantages for O&M training.
論文アブストラクト： Current low-tech Orientation & Mobility (O&M) tools for visually impaired people, e.g. tactile maps, possess limitations. Interactive accessible maps have been developed to overcome these. However, most of them are limited to exploration of existing maps, and have remained in laboratories. Using a participatory design approach, we have worked closely with 15 visually impaired students and 3 O&M instructors over 6 months. We iteratively designed and developed an augmented reality map destined at use in O&M classes in special education centers. This prototype combines projection, audio output and use of tactile tokens, and thus allows both map exploration and construction by low vision and blind people. Our user study demonstrated that all students were able to successfully use the prototype, and showed a high user satisfaction. A second phase with 22 international special education teachers allowed us to gain more qualitative insights. This work shows that augmented reality has potential for improving the access to education for visually impaired people.