論文アブストラクト： Large displays are becoming commonplace at work, at home, or in public areas. However, interaction at a distance -- anything greater than arms-length -- remains cumbersome, restricts simultaneous use, and requires specific hardware augmentations of the display: touch layers, cameras, or dedicated input devices. Yet a rapidly increasing number of people carry smartphones and smartwatches, devices with rich input capabilities that can easily be used as input devices to control interactive systems. We contribute (1) the results of a survey on possession and use of smart devices, and (2) the results of a controlled experiment comparing seven distal pointing techniques on phone or watch, one- and two-handed, and using different input channels and mappings. Our results favor using a smartphone as a trackpad, but also explore performance tradeoffs that can inform the choice and design of distal pointing techniques for different contexts of use.
論文アブストラクト： We explore and evaluate a multi-finger raycasting design space that we call "multiray". Each finger projects a ray on to the display, so the user is interacting from a distance using a form of direct input. Specifically, we propose techniques, where patterns of ray intersections created by hand postures form 2D geometric shapes to trigger actions and perform direct manipulations that go beyond single-point selections. Two formative studies examine characteristics of multi-finger raycasting for different projection methods, shapes, and tasks. Based on the results of those investigations, we demonstrate a number of dynamic UI controls and operations that utilise multiray points and shapes.
論文アブストラクト： While user representations are extensively used on public displays, it remains unclear how well users can recognize their own representation among those of surrounding users. We study the most widely used representations: abstract objects, skeletons, silhouettes and mirrors. In a prestudy (N=12), we identify five strategies that users follow to recognize themselves on public displays. In a second study (N=19), we quantify the users' recognition time and accuracy with respect to each representation type. Our findings suggest that there is a significant effect of (1) the representation type, (2) the strategies performed by users, and (3) the combination of both on recognition time and accuracy. We discuss the suitability of each representation for different settings and provide specific recommendations as to how user representations should be applied in multi-user scenarios. These recommendations guide practitioners and researchers in selecting the representation that optimizes the most for the deployment's requirements, and for the user strategies that are feasible in that environment.
論文アブストラクト： Tangibles on multitouch tabletops increase speed, accuracy, and eyes-free operability for individual users, and verbal and behavioral social interaction among multiple users around smaller tables with a shared focus of attention. Modern multitouch tables, however, provide sizes and resolutions that let groups work alongside each other in separate workspaces. But how aware do these users remain of each other's actions, and what impact can tangibles have on their awareness? In our study, groups of 2--4 users around the table played an individual game grabbing their attention as primary task, while they also had to occasionally become aware of other players'actions and react as secondary task. We found that players were significantly more aware of other players'actions using tangibles than those using pure multitouch interaction, indicated by faster reaction times. This effect was especially strong with more players. We close with qualitative user feedback and design recommendations. We found that players were significantly more aware of other players'actions using tangibles than those using pure multitouch interaction, indicated by faster reaction times. This effect was especially strong with more players. We close with qualitative user feedback and design recommendations.