論文アブストラクト： We seek to make physical user interface (PHUI) design more like graphical user interface (GUI) design by using a drag-and drop interface to place widgets, allowing widgets to be repositioned and by hiding implementation details. PHUIs are interfaces built from tangible widgets arranged on the surfaces of physical objects. PHUI layout will become more important as we move from rectangular screens to purpose-built interactive devices. Approaches to PHUI layout based on sculpture make it difficult to reposition widgets, and software approaches do not involve placing widgets on the device exterior. We created PHUI-kit, a software approach to PHUI layout on 3D printed enclosures, which has a drag-and-drop interface, supports repositioning of widgets, and hides implementation details. We describe algorithms for placing widgets on curved surfaces, modifying the enclosure geometry, and routing wiring inside the enclosure. The tool is easy to use and supports a wide range of design possibilities.
論文アブストラクト： We present Tangible Drops, a visio-tactile display that for the first time provides physical visualization and tactile feedback using a planar liquid interface. It presents digital information interactively by tracing dynamic patterns on horizontal flat surfaces using liquid metal drops on a programmable electrode array. It provides tactile feedback with directional information in the 2D vector plane using linear locomotion and/or vibration of the liquid metal drops. We demonstrate move, oscillate, merge, split and dispense-from-reservoir functions of the liquid metal drops by consuming low power (450 mW per electrode) and low voltage (8--15 V). We report on results of our empirical study with 12 participants on tactile feedback using 8 mm diameter drops, which indicate that Tangible Drops can convey tactile sensations such as changing speed, varying direction and controlled oscillation with no visual feedback. We present the design space and demonstrate the applications of Tangible Drops, and conclude by suggesting potential future applications for the technique.
論文アブストラクト： We present RFIBricks, an interactive building block system based on ultrahigh frequency radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing. The system enables geometry resolution based on a simple yet highly generalizable mechanism: an RFID contact switch, which is made by cutting each RFID tag into two parts, namely antenna and chip. A magnetic connector is then coupled with each part. When the antenna and chip connect, an interaction event with an ID is transmitted to the reader. On the basis of our design of RFID contact switch patterns, we present a system of interactive physical building blocks that resolves the stacking order and orientation when one block is stacked upon another, determines a three-dimensional (3D) geometry built on a two-dimensional base plate, and detects user inputs by incorporating electromechanical sensors. Because it is calibration-free and does not require batteries in each block, it facilitates straightforward maintenance when deployed at scale. Compared with other approaches, this RFID-based system resolves several critical challenges in human-computer interaction, such as 1) determining the identity and the built 3D geometry of passive building blocks, 2) enabling stackable token+constraint interaction on a tabletop, and 3) tracking in-hand assembly.
論文アブストラクト： We present Project Zanzibar: a flexible mat that can locate, uniquely identify and communicate with tangible objects placed on its surface, as well as sense a user's touch and hover hand gestures. We describe the underlying technical contributions: efficient and localised Near Field Communication (NFC) over a large surface area; object tracking combining NFC signal strength and capacitive footprint detection, and manufacturing techniques for a rollable device form-factor that enables portability, while providing a sizable interaction area when unrolled. In addition, we detail design patterns for tangibles of varying complexity and interactive capabilities, including the ability to sense orientation on the mat, harvest power, provide additional input and output, stack, or extend sensing outside the bounds of the mat. Capabilities and interaction modalities are illustrated with self-generated applications. Finally, we report on the experience of professional game developers building novel physical/digital experiences using the platform.