論文アブストラクト： Many people around the world have difficulties in day-to-day conversation due to hearing loss. Hearing aids often fail to offer enough benefits and have low adoption rates. However, people with hearing loss find that speechreading can improve their understanding during conversation, but speechreading is a challenging skill to learn. Speechreading classes can improve acquisition, however there are a limited number of classes available and students can only practice effectively when attending class. To address this, we conducted a postal survey with 59 speechreading students to understand students' perspectives on practicing. Using our findings, we developed an Android application called MirrorMirror - a new Speechreading Acquisition Tool (SAT) that allows students to practice their speechreading by recording and watching videos of people they frequently speak with. We evaluated MirrorMirror through three case studies with speechreading students and found that they could effectively target their speechreading practice on people, words and situations they encounter during daily conversations.
論文アブストラクト： As Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) improves in accuracy, it may become useful for transcribing spoken text in real-time for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) individuals. To quantify users' comprehension and opinion of automatic captions, which inevitably contain some errors, we must identify appropriate methodologies for evaluation studies with DHH users, including quantitative measurement instruments suitable to the various literacy levels among the DHH population. A literature review guided our selection of several probes (e.g. multiple-choice comprehension-question accuracy or response time, scalar-questions about user estimation of ASR errors or their impact, users' numerical estimation of accuracy), which we evaluated in a lab study with DHH users, wherein their literacy levels and the actual accuracy of each caption stimulus were factors. For some probes, participants with lower literacy had more positive subjective responses overall, and, for participants with particular literacy score ranges, some probes were insufficiently sensitive to distinguish between caption accuracy levels.
論文アブストラクト： Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) individuals encounter difficulties when engaged in group conversations with hearing individuals, due to factors such as simultaneous utterances from multiple speakers and speakers whom may be potentially out of view. We interviewed and co-designed with eight DHH participants to address the following challenges: 1) associating utterances with speakers, 2) ordering utterances from different speakers, 3) displaying optimal content length, and 4) visualizing utterances from out-of-view speakers. We evaluated multiple designs for each of the four challenges through a user study with twelve DHH participants. Our study results showed that participants significantly preferred speechbubble visualizations over traditional captions. These design preferences guided our development of SpeechBubbles, a real-time speech recognition interface prototype on an augmented reality head-mounted display. From our evaluations, we further demonstrated that DHH participants preferred our prototype over traditional captions for group conversations.
論文アブストラクト： Rhythm is the first musical concept deaf people learn in music classes. However, hearing loss limits the amount of information that allows a deaf person to evaluate his or her performance and stay in sync with other musicians. In this paper, we investigated how a visual and vibrotactile music-sensory-substitution device, MuSS-Bits++, affects rhythm discrimination, reproduction, and expressivity of deaf people. We conducted a controlled study with 11 deaf children and found that most participants felt more confident wearing the device in vibration mode even when it did not objectively improve their accuracy. Furthermore, we studied how MuSS-Bits++ can be used in music classes at deaf schools and what challenges and opportunities arise in such a setting. Based on these studies, we discuss insights and future directions that support the design and development of music-sensory-substitution systems for music making.