論文アブストラクト： We introduce FingerT9, leveraging the action of thumb-to-finger touching on the finger segments, to support same-side-hand (SSH) text entry on smartwatches. This is achieved by mapping a T9 keyboard layout to the finger segments. Our solution avoids the problems of fat finger and screen occlusion, and enables text entry using the same-side hand which wears the watch. In the pilot study, we determined the layout mapping preferred by the users. We conducted an experiment to compare the text-entry performances of FingerT9, the tilt-based SSH input, and the direct-touch non-SSH input. The results showed that the participants performed significantly faster and more accurately with FingerT9 than the tilt-based method. There was no significant difference between FingerT9 and direct-touch methods in terms of efficiency and error rate. We then conducted the second experiment to study the learning curve on SSH text entry methods: FingerT9 and the tilt-based input. FingerT9 gave significantly better long-term improvement. In addition, eyes-free text entry (i.e., looking at the screen output but not the keyboard layout mapped on the finger segments) was made possible once the participants were familiar with the keyboard layout.
論文アブストラクト： We present WrisText - a one-handed text entry technique for smartwatches using the joystick-like motion of the wrist. A user enters text by whirling the wrist of the watch hand, towards six directions which each represent a key in a circular keyboard, and where the letters are distributed in an alphabetical order. The design of WrisText was an iterative process, where we first conducted a study to investigate optimal key size, and found that keys needed to be 55º or wider to achieve over 90% striking accuracy. We then computed an optimal keyboard layout, considering a joint optimization problem of striking accuracy, striking comfort, word disambiguation. We evaluated the performance of WrisText through a five-day study with 10 participants in two text entry scenarios: hand-up and hand-down. On average, participants achieved a text entry speed of 9.9 WPM across all sessions, and were able to type as fast as 15.2 WPM by the end of the last day.
論文アブストラクト： Selecting an item of interest on smartwatches can be tedious and time-consuming as it involves a series of swipe and tap actions. We present PageFlip, a novel method that combines into a single action multiple touch operations such as command invocation and value selection for efficient interaction on smartwatches. PageFlip operates with a page flip gesture that starts by dragging the UI from a corner of the device. We first design PageFlip by examining its key design factors such as corners, drag directions and drag distances. We next compare PageFlip to a functionally equivalent radial menu and a standard swipe and tap method. Results reveal that PageFlip improves efficiency for both discrete and continuous selection tasks. Finally, we demonstrate novel smartwatch interaction opportunities and a set of applications that can benefit from PageFlip.
論文アブストラクト： Entering text on non-desktop computing devices is often done via an onscreen virtual keyboard. Input on such keyboards normally consists of a sequence of noisy tap events that specify some amount of text, most commonly a single word. But is single word-at-a-time entry the best choice? This paper compares user performance and recognition accuracy of word-at-a-time, phrase-at-a-time, and sentence-at-a-time text entry on a smartwatch keyboard. We evaluate the impact of differing amounts of input in both text copy and free composition tasks. We found providing input of an entire sentence significantly improved entry rates from 26 wpm to 32 wpm while keeping character error rates below 4%. In offline experiments with more processing power and memory, sentence input was recognized with a much lower 2.0% error rate. Our findings suggest virtual keyboards can enhance performance by encouraging users to provide more input per recognition event.