Session:「User innovation in marginalized communities」

In the Eye of the Student: An Intangible Cultural Heritage Experience, with a Human-Computer Interaction Twist

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173864

論文アブストラクト: We critically engage with CHI communities emerging outside the global North (ArabHCI and AfriCHI) to explore how participation is configured and enacted within socio-cultural and political contexts fundamentally different from Western societies. We contribute to recent discussions about postcolonialism and decolonization of HCI by focusing on non-Western future technology designers. Our lens was a course designed to engage Egyptian students with a local yet culturally-distant community to design applications for documenting intangible heritage. Through an action research, the instructors reflect on selected students' activities. Despite deploying a flexible learning curriculum that encourages greater autonomy, the students perceived themselves with less agency than other institutional stakeholders involved in the project. Further, some of them struggled to empathize with the community as the impact of the cultural differences on configuring participation was profound. We discuss the implications of the findings on HCI education and in international cross-cultural design projects.

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The Space of Possibilities: Political Economies of Technology Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173880

論文アブストラクト: HCI researchers work within spaces of possibility for potential designs of technology. New methods (e.g., user centrism); expected types of interaction (user with device); and potential applications (urban navigation) can extend the boundaries of these possibilities. However, structural and systemic factors can also foreclose them. A recent wide and shallow survey of 116 individuals involved in technology development across 26 countries in sub-Saharan Africa reveals how factors of political economy significantly impact upon technological possibilities. Monopolies, international power dynamics, race, and access to capital open or constrain technological possibilities at least as much as device-centric or user-focused constraints do. Though their thrust may have been anticipated by reference to political economic trends, the structural constraints we found were underestimated by technologists even a decade ago. We discuss the implications for technology development in Africa and beyond.

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Building Momentum: Scaling up Change in Community Organizations

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3173984

論文アブストラクト: Addressing calls in Sustainable HCI to scale up our work in HCI targeting sustainability, and the current knowledge gap of how to do this practically, we here present a qualitative study of 10 sustainability-oriented community organizations that are working to scale up their change making. They are all loosely connected to a local Transition network, meaning that they are aiming at transforming current practices in society, through local and practical action, to meet challenges related to climate change. We wanted to know how they try to scale up their change making, and what role ICT plays in enabling scaling up. The study contributes new insights about three stages of scaling up, in which ICT plays different roles. We conclude with implications for HCI for how to support community organizations in scaling up, while keeping values important for working toward a more resilient society.

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Revisiting “Hole in the Wall” Computing: Private Smart Speakers and Public Slum Settings

論文URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3173574.3174072

論文アブストラクト: Millions of homes worldwide enjoy access to digital content and services through smart speakers such as Amazon's Echo and Google's Home. Promotional materials and users' own videos typically show homes that have many well-resourced rooms, with good power and data infrastructures. Over the last several years, we have been working with slum communities in India, whose dwellings are usually very compact (one or two rooms), personal home WiFi is almost unheard of, power infrastructures are far less robust, and financial resources put such smart speakers out of individual household reach. Inspired by the "hole in the wall" internet-kiosk programme, we carried out workshops with slum inhabitants to uncover issues and opportunities for providing a smart-speaker-type device in public areas and passageways. We designed and deployed a simple probe that allowed passers-by to ask and receive answers to questions. In this paper, we present the findings of this work, and a design space for such devices in these settings.

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