論文アブストラクト： Eyes-free target acquisition is a basic and important human ability to interact with the surrounding physical world, relying on the sense of space and proprioception. In this research, we leverage this ability to improve interaction in virtual reality (VR), by allowing users to acquire a virtual object without looking at it. We expect this eyes-free approach can effectively reduce head movements and focus changes, so as to speed up the interaction and alleviate fatigue and VR sickness. We conduct three lab studies to progressively investigate the feasibility and usability of eyes-free target acquisition in VR. Results show that, compared with the eyes-engaged manner, the eyes-free approach is significantly faster, provides satisfying accuracy, and introduces less fatigue and sickness; Most participants (13/16) prefer this approach. We also measure the accuracy of motion control and evaluate subjective experience of users when acquiring targets at different locations around the body. Based on the results, we make suggestions on designing appropriate target layout and discuss several design issues for eyes-free target acquisition in VR.
論文アブストラクト： Mobile VR HMDs enable scenarios where they are being used in public, excluding all the people in the surrounding (Non-HMD Users) and reducing them to be sole bystanders. We present FaceDisplay, a modified VR HMD consisting of three touch sensitive displays and a depth camera attached to its back. People in the surrounding can perceive the virtual world through the displays and interact with the HMD user via touch or gestures. To further explore the design space of FaceDisplay, we implemented three applications (FruitSlicer, SpaceFace and Conductor) each presenting different sets of aspects of the asymmetric co-located interaction (e.g. gestures vs touch). We conducted an exploratory user study (n=16), observing pairs of people experiencing two of the applications and showing a high level of enjoyment and social interaction with and without an HMD. Based on the findings we derive design considerations for asymmetric co-located VR applications and argue that VR HMDs are currently designed having only the HMD user in mind but should also include Non-HMD Users.
論文アブストラクト： Researchers and designers of in-vehicle interactions and interfaces currently have to choose between performing evaluation and human factors experiments in laboratory driving simulators or on-road experiments. To enjoy the benefit of customizable course design in controlled experiments with the immediacy and rich sensations of on-road driving, we have developed a new method and tools to enable VR driving simulation in a vehicle as it travels on a road. In this paper, we describe how the cost-effective and flexible implementation of this platform allows for rapid prototyping. A preliminary pilot test (N = 6), centered on an autonomous driving scenario, yields promising results, illustrating proof of concept and indicating that a basic implementation of the system can invoke genuine responses from test participants.
論文アブストラクト： Entering text is one of the most common tasks when interacting with computing systems. Virtual Reality (VR) presents a challenge as neither the user's hands nor the physical input devices are directly visible. Hence, conventional desktop peripherals are very slow, imprecise, and cumbersome. We developed a apparatus that tracks the user's hands, and a physical keyboard, and visualize them in VR. In a text input study with 32 participants, we investigated the achievable text entry speed and the effect of hand representations and transparency on typing performance, workload, and presence. With our apparatus, experienced typists benefited from seeing their hands, and reach almost outside-VR performance. Inexperienced typists profited from semi-transparent hands, which enabled them to type just 5.6 WPM slower than with a regular desktop setup. We conclude that optimizing the visualization of hands in VR is important, especially for inexperienced typists, to enable a high typing performance.